CPCB GARAY_ict en Ecuador

Investigación CEESMA y Colaboradores

TÍTULO: ICT Integration in Ecuador’s Military Education: Going Beyond PowerPoint
AUTOR: CPCB-SU Francisco Garay
ÁREA: Tecnologías de la información en la seguridad y defensa

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5. 5 In this sense, what is stated by Juhary [21] does n ot depart completely from this approach, since learning is contextual and is relat ed to what is known and believed, as stated by Annen, Nakkas and Mäkinen [18] when they indicate that the constructivist approach is the most appropriate for a military stu dent, where learning becomes a social process, taking as examples cases given in t he military forces of Holland, Can- ada and Israel. Johnson-Freese [22] reaffirms this by saying that the military can find many advantages for his intellectual development by entering a more open environ- ment of education, which allows him to create netwo rks of knowledge. Then, military education adapts in the best way to the postulates of the constructiv- ist approach, because it tries to train soldiers ca pable of solving problems in complex environments or situations of group pressure, becau se when the student works to achieve their own learning, the educator it stops b eing the center of that learning, passing the responsibility of the process to the st udent [23]. When the student is empowered by his own learning h e achieves real performanc- es, which contribute to his own motivation to conti nue learning, because when relat- ing the new knowledge with real life, with those pe rformances that are expected of him in the future in his career, he will be trained to be used in different contexts [24]. This way of learning will serve those who live in e nvironments of rapid decision mak- ing, teamwork, high pressure situations and often a way from possible additional sources of consultation that allow you to expand th e knowledge you already have. The challenge in Ecuador is to overcome previous co nceptions and adopt constructiv- ism as the norm. The study carried out by Romero [2 5] indicates that only 6.66% of the teachers of the Escuela Superior de Policía (Po lice Academy for prospective Po- lice officers) use some constructivist pedagogical technique. A study conducted in the Training and Specializatio n School of the Ecuadorian Navy (ESCAPE), demonstrated that its teachers did n ot agree on the importance of using e-mail and social media as means to improve t heir learning experience [54]. On the other hand studies conducted by Colorado and Co gollo [53] and Ruth [28] at the Military University of Nueva Granada (UMNG) of Colo mbia and the Naval Post- graduate University (NPS) and the Academy Naval of the United States (USNA), respectively, coincide when affirming that the curr ent military students would use their mobile means of learning in a good way if it were considered as valid employ- ment by their professors. According to this researc h, 79% of UMNG students, 55% of distance students and 60% of NPS resident students, and more than 70% of USNA students, would use these learning ways. The Police and Navy experiences, compared to the studies conducted in Colombia and United Sta tes, tell us that our teachers may be not doing what their students expect of them to motivate their learning. Knowledge is defined by UNESCO [1] as the informati on, understanding, compe- tences, values and attitudes acquired through learn ing and necessarily linked to the culture, society, environment and institutions in w hich it is developed. In this context, Ruiz Barría [26], states that competency-based edu cation is born from learning as a phenomenon of the individual who learns and from th e need to train professionals capable of solving problems in real performance are as.

6. 6 5 ICT Integration in Military Education Just as new technologies have changed the lives of societies in general, this is no dif- ferent for the military. The Army and the Air Force of the United States have changed their models focused on the instructor towards the new student-centered paradigm, in which relevant, interesting and tailor-made learnin g experiences of the person who is learning are sought, with access to knowledge throu gh mobile devices, with advanced systems organizing expertly guided learning [27]. Studies carried out at the Postgraduate School and at the Naval Academy of the United States determined that their students, Offic ials and Midshipmen respectively, had similar behaviors regarding the use of technolo gy in education. In fact, almost all the students of both institutes indicated that they used their smartphones to read their e-mail and surf the web, download or use live (stre aming) audio and video files, but only 10% used them to read e-books or use podcasts of their classes. Students, in general, demand greater integration of their educat ional platforms - Sakai and Black- board - towards mobile devices in such a way that t hey can have greater access to them [28]. This is a clear indication that the gene ration of "Millenials" is not only present in civil society, but also among the milita ry, which becomes an additional reason to firmly believe in the advantages that the integration of the ICT in pedagogi- cal practice. Traditionally, within military educational institut ions, when talking about the inte- gration of pedagogy and technology, simulators were immediately thought of. This does not stop being true, because the use of simula tors in different levels are clear examples of learning in action, collaborative work and reflection in action in the so- called "War Games", an educational resource that is used more and more every day. recognized in its validity when interpolated to the civil environment and known with- in gamification [29]. Recent developments have made commercial simulators more and more useful for use in professional military classes, instead of sy stems designed specifically for such purposes. Thus, the game of naval tactics Jane's Fl eet Command is used at the United States Naval War College, USNWC, regularly, while A rmy training centers in that country use an improved version of the game Janus t o train at the company and battal- ion level. A version modified by the Marine Corps o f the popular Doom game is used to train four-man combat teams in concepts such as mutual fire support, automatic weapon protection, attack sequencing, munition disc ipline and command succession. It is known that many flight students around the wo rld have used Microsoft Flight Simulator to practice, but it is not until recently that it is known that aspiring fighter pilots of the United States Navy who used it, have regularly obtained better scores than who did not do it [30]. NETSAFA, entity responsible for cooperation with ot her countries in military edu- cation in the United States Navy, has taken advanta ge of social networks to facilitate communication with their students after they return to their countries of origin, creat- ing Facebook pages that Teachers use to keep in con tact and exchange information and questions with their students [27].

2. 2 Technology, then, must be used to remove the physic al barriers that can hinder learning and in the transition between the focus on the retention of knowledge to- wards its real employment, that is, in the creation of competences. The ease of access provided by distance education and the availability of databases on the network, allow knowledge to be closer to students, with an appropr iate guide, can develop skills based on new technologies [4]. In this context a referential model for ICT integra tion in Ecuadorian education is proposed, which can be used in the military educati on system of the country. 2 ICT INTEGRATION IN EDUCATION Records of favorable results of the use of ICT in e ducation are in sight. Pérez, Cebrián and Blanco, cited by Fuentes & Torres Gutiérrez [5] , agree in their studies conducted between 2005 and 2006 that the use of ICT in educat ion results in a considerable in- crease in students' motivation, and in a best class room environment. A more recent study, carried out by Fuentes and Torres [5] to 15- year-old Spanish students, resulted in the technological factors employed in the houses acting positively on the students' grades. After their experience in adult education using ICT in Andalucía, Fernández and Torres [6] concluded that they encourage motivation towards their use, personalized work, communication and the acquisition of knowledg e. These conclusions are simi- lar to those reached by Bravo and Forero [7], when they evaluated the learning ac- quired by their students when they used robotic pro totypes or specialized programs for pedagogical purposes. Also, there is an evidence of unfavorable results as indicated by Calero and Es- cardíbul [8] when mentioning the results of Israeli , Colombian and American works that did not find an improvement in the performance of students who used ICT for learning, although they also present evidence of wo rk in England, India and the Unit- ed States in which it was evident that students of science, mathematics and English who used ICT for their learning obtained better res ults than those who followed a traditional method. Experiences in Ecuador indicate that the degree of use of ICT in education is low and therefore it is still too early to establish if the results are positive. Amores [9] indicates that the students of mathematics and phys ics of the Central University of Ecuador in Quito do not use new technologies in the ir learning except for the ex- change of information between them, even though the ir teachers consider that these tools facilitate meaningful learning. In contrast, as indicated by Ortiz [10], at Casa- grande University in Guayaquil there is a greater u se of new technologies, such as blogs, collaboration tools and social networks, whi ch generates an approach to digital natives and the consequent change in the student's role, criteria that are shared by Hi Fong [11] based on studies conducted at the same Un iversity. The national experienc- es are varied, but the tendency is a low integratio n of the technology use in the teach- ing practice, as indicated by Rodríguez based on hi s experience with the Quito Edu- canet program of the Municipality of Quito and the Benalcázar School [12], as well as

3. 3 Ortiz and Chiluiza, who determined that higher educ ation teachers linked to the Ecua- dorian Consortium for the Development of Advanced I nternet (CEDIA), mainly use technology for administrative use, and a lesser ext ent as a support to teaching, being the lowest level is the innovative use of technolog y [13], despite the fact that the study group is of teachers committed to the use of technology in education. These experiences indicate that in military educati onal environments, whose cours- es are developed in different ways depending on the objective sought, be it training, specialization or improvement, the use of ICT will be of great help, both to bring the knowledge to students to develop their competences still far from the study center, using distance education, as facilitating the devel opment of skills such as teamwork, collaboration or professional skills, through teach ers who integrate technology into their practice pedagogical. 3 Military Education in Ecuador Now, although military education has the same chara cteristics as general education, it is necessary to specify some particular definitions that are used within the Ecuadorian Armed Forces, and relate them to those that are use d within the pedagogical processes of civil institutions. The Education Model of the Armed Forces in effect h as as its first specific objec- tive to implement a curricular design with a compet ency-based approach to military education [14], which encompasses the processes of training, preparation, specializa- tion and improvement of Army, Navy and Air Force pe rsonnel from its entry until its retirement, processes that must be within the frame of reference that indicate the guidelines of the aforementioned model. Training and improvement are only carried out in mi litary institutes in the country, due to the sensitivity of the information, while tr aining and specialization can be car- ried out both in national military institutes, as w ell as in foreign military entities or civilian educational centers. Thereby, training and professional specialization a re defined in articles 41 and 45 of the Regulation of the Armed Forces Personnel Law [15] as follows: "The professional training is the preparation of mi litary personnel that will be car- ried out through courses or seminars, which may hav e a maximum duration of one year, and that will be carried out without prejudic e to the work activities of each mili- tary. They will be aimed at keeping the knowledge u p-to-date and granting them the additional basic tools to perform in the workplace efficiently. " On the other hand, professional specialization cour ses group the preparation re- ceived by military personnel in a specific field of their area of higher education, after their graduation from training schools, which allow s them to perfect themselves for their occupation, profession or area of expertise p erformance, and the positions they must assume. Professional specialization differs from training, in that these studies help you di- rectly for your work, such as, for example, the spe cialization courses with which members of the Navy choose their qualification as m embers of the Surface Warfare

4. 4 Force, Submarines, Marine Corps, Naval Aviation or Coast Guard once they graduate from training schools as officers or crew and with the title of Bachelor of Science or Naval Technologist respectively. On the other hand, the improvement is defined by ar ticle 52 of the Armed Forces Personnel Law [16] as the educational activity thro ugh which the military, once dis- charged as an officer or troop, receives military a nd complementary knowledge to the performance in the immediate superior degree. These are courses that are carried out for promotion and develop military skills for their performance in the Armed Forces. 4 Constructivism in Military Education The first idea of "military education" can be frame d in a behavioral model by the rigidity of military forms, in which one might thin k that there is little space for crea- tion, freedom and interaction, which are characteri stics of a constructivist model [17]. Classes in the militia have not stopped of being mo stly a transfer from the "instruc- tor" to the "student", due to the cultural framewor k that, in the militia depends on traditions and inheritances [18], but for a while n ow it has been clear in different mili- tary institutions throughout the world, that constr uctivism in education can be the most effective way to reduce the gap between "knowi ng information" and "knowing how to use information" in complex environments, ty pical of an aircraft combat or an Combat and Information Center - CIC - of a ship [19 ]. It is for this reason that along with the Instructi onal model in which someone who "knows" teaches the one who can "learn" [17] each d ay, more experiences are gener- ated in which a military team can use structured pr ocesses to consider alternatives. and consequences before acting, without using pre-p lanned answers that are not nec- essarily adapted in the best way to the different s ituations presented by reality [19]. In that sense, the pure instructional model is not ada pted to the military of the present and future, defined by Szabó [20] as a person, who must be thoughtful, creative, with several competencies, great capacity for adaptation and with abilities to solve prob- lems about the half. Juhary [21] states that military education should b e seen as a tool that teaches the student to solve problems, but from conceptions, vi sions, doctrine and military modal- ities. Military education is a balanced mix in whic h behaviorism and constructivism must coexist, allowing students to learn to carry o ut orders at first and then develop as leaders. In this regard, recognizes the need to rai se significant learning using con- structivist techniques, but is pragmatic to recogni ze that in an environment like the military, the freedoms that must be granted to achi eve the construction of knowledge must coexist with the traditions and forms of the m ilitia. The constructivist approach makes clear the importa nce of the student being ex- posed to different perspectives on the topics under study, which go beyond sharing information or working in groups, where the objecti ve is to guide the student to achieve learning that supports the diverse points o f view and allows you to make rea- soned decisions [19].

7. 7 Distance education, a subject in which the Ecuadori an Navy has some experience with the use of platforms such as Moodle or Blackbo ard to support distance courses for students of the Naval War College (Academia de Guerra Naval) or ESCAPE. Before entering promotion courses, officers and cre w must approve distance courses that qualify them for entry, as well as pass contin uing education modules at the Uni- versity of Armed Forces - ESPE, which are considere d as requirements to continue in the race. Another example is the Virtual Desktop initiative o f the United States Navy, which seeks to improve and facilitate the educational exp erience of students at a distance from that institution, by allowing students to ente r from any computer, generating virtual desktops to access classified information, leaving aside the dedicated termi- nals, and facilitating the transmission of sensitiv e information that would otherwise generate serious security risks [31]. More examples of the increasing integration of ICT in military education include the employment in the United States Armed Forces of intelligent tutorial systems, or virtual worlds used for Second Life-type games for decision making, and even indi- vidualized learning models as those used by the US Marines, promoting changes in the pedagogical interaction between teacher and stu dent [32]. These forms of using ICT in military education should only remember that their use is a means and not an end, since the integration of ICT in military educa tion is as valid as it is in civil edu- cation. Unfortunately, while distance education is a way in which the Ecuadorian Navy has integrated ICT in education, the experience of ESCAPE and the Police indicates that the path that "uniformed education" has to tra vel is long. Most ESCAPE profes- sors, for example, believe that it is good to use t echnology, but at the same time, they say they do not [54]. 6 ICT Integration Models In order to integrate ICT in the teaching practice, it is necessary to have a methodolo- gy that must necessarily start with a frame of refe rence that allows defining the state of integration, which are defined under different m odels. Majumdar [33] presented in his report to UNESCO a p roposal for a model of ICT integration in education. This model consists of st ages that are considered as steps that identify the development of ICT in education. Institutions that are in the initial stage of ICT i ntegration follow the emerging ap- proach. These are those institutions that are just beginning to have computational infrastructure and their teachers make personal use of new technologies, such as using word processors or using the Internet to communicat e with friends or family. These institutions, begin to know that they can use ICT, but are not familiar with them, and therefore use them to improve the performance of th eir professionals When institutions are in a stage of learning to use ICT, and seek to improve the ways of learning, Majumdar indicates that they are in the second stage, the application

9. 9 Thus, the UNESCO Framework emphasizes that it is no t enough for teachers to have ICT competences and be able to share them with their students, but that they should be able to help their students collaborate w ith each other, solve problems and learn in a creative way using ICTs to become good c itizens and members of the work- force [36]. This model takes three approaches: tech nological literacy, the deepening of knowledge and the creation of knowledge, and in that way takes into consideration all the aspects that define within the work of the teacher, creating a matrix framework. A third model to be taken into consideration is the Common Framework of Teach- ing Digital Competence of the Ministry of Education , Culture and Sport of Spain [37]. This works on 5 different domains, which take into consideration the digital compe- tences that must be achieved and integrate teachers in their practice, referred to the domains of Information, Communication, Content Crea tion, Security and Resolution of Technical Problems [37, pp. 66-73]. The standards defined by UNESCO, ISTE or the Minist ry of Education of Spain are clear and are accompanied by their respective i ndicators and as such, can be used to guide the evaluation to the pedagogical practice of teachers in military institutes, as such way that allows measuring the integration of I CT in it, and thus be able to define at what stage they are according to the model defin ed by Majumdar, which may pro- vide a clear idea of the shortcomings and needs to make the best decisions that could improve those levels and take military education an d its teachers to the higher stages. For example, ISTE has indicated that a study conduc ted by the Richard W. Riley College of Educational and Leadership, cited by Beg lau [38] found that teachers who use technology to support learning in their classro oms have frequently reported large benefits in learning, commitment and development of skills, compared to those who have not. The same study found that only 34% of 100 0 teachers surveyed use tech- nology 10% of their class or less. That is why it i s necessary to train teachers accord- ing to the approach made by ISTE, which has found p ositive results using 3 models [38]: (1) Cognitive training. (2) Instructional training. (3) Peer training focused on technology. UNESCO [39] has carried out studies to determine th e results of ICT integration using its frame of reference in the Asia-Pacific re gion. For example, Malaysian teach- ers indicated that after being trained to use ICT i n their teaching practice they were able to incorporate them into their classrooms allo wing them to live new forms of learning. Another important experience is that of I ndonesia, a country that has com- mitted to education using ICT with programs such as wireless networks in all schools with radio frequency links or free software license s for donated computers. Other countries that were evaluated were the Philippines, Singapore, South Korea and Thai- land, each of them with success stories referring t o positive change for having applied ICT integration standards in education [40]. The Spanish case is different, since the frame of r eference is more recent. Howev- er, digital literacy actions have been carried out in the community of Madrid since the nineties, which since the issuance of the frame of reference have been increased, such

11. 11 Fig. 1. Proposed Model of ICT Integration in Teaching Prac tice for Ecuador. Pozuelo [45] indicates that some time ago there has been an insistence on the need to change teaching strategies in the learning proce ss, but even so, research shows that teachers do not have enough digital skills to integ rate ICT into their practice. Driskell [19], Méndez Cortes [17], Szabó [20] and Juhary [21 ] indicated that military educa- tion can benefit from the constructivist approach, while Bell and Reigeluth [32] showed that it can benefit from the increasing use of ICT for personalized learning. Añel and Raposo [46] in their research on postgradu ate teachers in Spain show that although the Internet is an enriching resource in t he educational context, it is very little exploited, with teachers being one of the co rnerstones for the integration of ICT in education, so that their availability and attitu de will be fundamental to make it pos- sible. In that way, the positive approach that military pr ofessors could have toward the use of technological resources in education will be a strong base on which to build knowledge about the possibilities offered by ICT to improve educational processes. But it still will be just the beginning of a long p rocess. 7 Conclusions UNESCO Regional Office for Latin America and the Ca ribbean [47] indicates that in the reality of this region of the world, great expe ctations should not be created regard- ing rapid changes in the current situation, since I CT should not be considered a matter of specialists, but as a cross-cutting element for all educators. It is for this reason that initially it will be necessary to gradually pass di gital literacy for military teachers in relation to the academic use of ICT. If based on th e results obtained from the experi- ences in civilian educational institutions, it can be concluded that teachers in Ecuador are mostly within the first 3 levels of the ICT int egration model proposed for Ecuador,

8. 8 in it, teachers use ICT for professional purposes, using them to support Learning in your area of knowledge. The third stage is known as infusion and involves i ntegrating ICT into the curricu- la, using them in laboratories, classrooms and admi nistrative sectors. It not only in- volves the teaching - learning processes, but also those of its management. These institutions understand when and how to use ICT and thus seek to facilitate learning. The fourth and last stage is called the transformat ion stage and it happens when the educational institution renews its organization so that ICTs are an integral part of professional practice. The teachers of these instit utions seek to create innovative learning environments using ICT. Based on this model, Anderson [3] identifies the st ages in which teachers could be found by comparing their ability to use ICT. Thereb y, a teacher who applies tools such as word processors, programs to make presentat ions, databases, spreadsheets or email to support their process, will be in the firs t stage, while those who use software to support learning, I could already say that it is in the second. The teacher who seeks to facilitate learning using multi-mode instruction, using a variety of multimedia tools to facilitate the learn ing of their students, selecting the one that is most appropriate for each task, will be in the third stage. In contrast, the teacher who uses modeling and simu lation, expert systems, interac- tive learning tools, will be in the fourth stage an d will also be more open to supporting pedagogical innovation. In order to determine at what stage the institution and its teachers are, there are dif- ferent models that can be adapted to the reality th at exists to obtain valid indicators that clearly determine the level of ICT integration in pedagogical practice. As indicat- ed by Majumdar [33], the International Society of T echnology in Education, ISTE, developed since 2000 the national standards of tech nology education, NETS for teachers, NETS • T, based on the national standards of technology education for stu- dents, NETS, which focus on teacher education befor e starting their work as a teach- er, define concepts, knowledge, skills and attitude s to apply technology in education. After a few years, the ISTE changes its standards f or teachers in a second edition, indicating that those who apply, design, implement and evaluate learning experiences can engage students and improve their learning usin g ICT. The standards are defined as follows [34]: (1) Facilitate and inspire student learning and creativ ity. (2) Design and develop learning experiences and assessm ents of the digital era. (3) Modeling work and learning in the digital era. (4) Promote and model citizenship and digital responsib ility. (5) Involvement in professional growth and leadership. ISTE participated in the definition of the ICT Comp etencies Framework for UNESCO Teachers [35] together with other institutio ns such as Microsoft. UNESCO aims to achieve the objectives of national economic and human development through education, which means that there are differences b etween these two models of the integration of ICT in pedagogical practice.

10. 10 as courses related to the use of computer tools in curricular areas, and employment of web 2.0 applications [41]. In general, there are ac tions tending to integrate ICT in schools such as the provision of digital educationa l content platforms, tablets in class- rooms, interactive digital whiteboards or even the freedom to carry their own device in some communities [42]. A large percentage of 5,000 Spanish teachers survey ed in a study conducted by Ar- ea, Sanabria and Vega [43], indicated that the incr ease in the availability of resources and technological infrastructure is a positive elem ent that has allowed integrating innovations based on ICT into pedagogical practice, through information search activ- ities, work with word processors, on-line exercises . One of the most important find- ings is that 80% of teachers surveyed believe that ICT in the classroom does not cause an increase in the distraction of students or an ad ded effort of importance to their teaching. Now, these models are the result of the reflections of their creators and therefore define a reality that is a function of the observed . The Ecuadorian case, as can be inferred from the research carried out at universit ies in Guayaquil and Quito, and the Police and Navy experiences, is different. The conc lusions of these studies indicate a low integration of ICT that does not even reach the lowest levels of the proposed models. That is why, in order to establish a scale of integ ration of ICT in teaching practice that is better adapted to the Ecuadorian reality (i ncluding military), the models of ISTE [34], UNESCO [44] and the Ministry of Educatio n, Culture and Sports of Spain [37], and the experiences obtained in the studies c arried out by graduates of the Cen- tral University [9], Universidad Casagrande [11] an d [10], FLACSO [12] and the Escuela Politécnica del Litoral [13] ] in professor s of university level are taken as reference, to define a scale of levels of integrati on of ICT in the teaching practice in the following way: In the proposed model (see Figure 1), in the 1 st level: Digital Literacy, the class is standard, with a basic knowledge of technological t ools and practical integration of technology on very basic topics such as generating documents or using a slide pre- senter. The 2 nd level: Design of digital experiences, the class is standard, but using digital tools beyond PowerPoint. Design and evaluat e authentic learning experiences to develop knowledge and skills using digital tools as support. In the case of 3 rd level: Work modeling and digital learning, the class uses collaborative groups, applying knowledge to solve complex problems. I use complex digital tools to achieve collabo- rative work. In 4 th level: Citizenship modeling and digital responsibi lity, teacher man- age and guide the class. I exhibit a behavior that guides my students to integrate tech- nology in an adequate, legal and ethical way in the ir practice, while creating their knowledge. In the, 5 th and last level: Involvement in professional growt h and leader- ship, we improved the professional practice, while learning for life model demonstrat- ing the effective use of digital tools and resource s and encouraging students to create knowledge by taking me as a learning model. Student s are able to solve technical problems, and innovate the use of technology in a c reative way.

15. 15 49. S. Heinz y M. I. Lara, «Programa de capacitación e n competencias TICs para docentes», en Nuevas Ideas en Informática Educativa, Santiago, Chile, 2011, vol. 7. 50. Fundación UNED, «Curso TIC para Profesores - Program a - Fundación UNED», Curso de competencias TIC para profesores, 2016. url: http:// www.cursoticprofesores.com/ progra- ma/. 51. Ministerio de Educación y Deportes de Argentina, «E specialización Docente en Educación y TIC», Especialización docente en Educación y TIC, 2016. [En línea]. url: http://postitulo.educ.ar/. [Accedido: 09-oct-2016]. 52. Ministerio de Educación de República Dominicana, «Ca pacitación de docentes en la Inte- gración de TIC en el Aula», Capacitación de docentes en la Integración de TIC en el Aula, 2014. url: http://www.educando.edu.do/articulos/doc ente/capacitacin-de-docentes-en-la- integracin-de-tic-en-el-aula/#. [Accedido: 09-oct-2 016]. 53. P. Colorado Ordoñez, & J. G. Cogollo Rincón, «Las rede s sociales en la Universidad Mili- tar Nueva Granada-UMNG», in Academia y Virtualidad, 6(2), 24–33, 2013, https://doi.org/10.18359/ravi.407 54. F. Garay, « La Integración de las TIC en la Práctic a Pedagógica de los Docentes en la Es- cuela de Calificación y Perfeccionamiento de la Arma da. Las TIC en ESCAPE. Más Allá del Powerpoint », Universidad Casagrande, Guayaquil, 2017

12. 12 it should initially aim to provide them with the ne cessary knowledge about the differ- ent technological resources that can be used, in su ch a way that they can introduce them into their teaching practice as they take more confidence and knowledge in the advantages that their use can provide for the learn ing experience of their students. In order to change this situation, it is necessary to describe the training needs of teachers in the use of ICT, to improve the learning experience in the military context. If we take UNESCO's recommendation into account aga in, these training needs must be solved gradually and based on digital literacy. The ALEPH program in Colombia seeks the knowledge, use and incorporation of ICT i n the professional training of teachers and for this, has developed a program to t rain them in educational services of the Internet, educational communication and audiovi sual media [48], very similar to the proposal of Heinz and Lara [49], focused on the development of basic competenc- es in ICT, development of cross-cutting competences in ICT and administrative and results management. The UNED Foundation [50] in Spa in offers a training program in ICT for teachers that covers topics such as the didactic integration of the Internet in the classroom, communication with ICT applied to th e classroom and the creation and management of digital content, all of these, privat e efforts that have counterparts led by Ministries of Education such as Argentina [51] w ith its Teaching Specialization in Education and ICT, which reviews topics such as tea ching, learning and evaluating with ICT, ICT strategies, cross-cutting integration s and development of educational proposals with TIC; or that of the Dominican Republ ic [52], which intends to organ- ize 600 courses to train teachers of the different levels of the Dominican educational system in necessary elements to implement models of ICT integration, classification and use of digital resources and ICT strategies. Taking all these experiences and designing a propos al that adapts to the training needs in the military context, according to the mod el proposed by the Joint Command of the Armed Forces [14] of competency-based learni ng, makes it necessary first of all to take into account the need to start with dig ital literacy and then integrate these new digital skills into the teaching practice, star ting by placing the integration of ICT in the classroom as facilitator, as a medium and no t as end, technological resources that are used efficiently by properly trained teach ers, will help to improve student learning. References 1. UNESCO, «Replantear la educación: ¿Hacia un bien comú n mundial?» UNESCO, 2015. 2. M. Raposo Rivas, «La tecnología informática al servi cio de la educación», 2001. [En lí- nea]. url: http://dspace.usc.es/handle/10347/5150. 3. J. Anderson, «ICT transforming education: a regiona l guide», UNESCO Bangkok, Bang- kok, Tailandia, 2010. 4. K. Courville, Technology and Its Use in Education: P resent Roles and Future Prospects. 2011. 5. M. D. C. Fuentes y J. J. Torres Gutiérrez, «¿Mejoran las TIC los resultados académicos de los estudiantes españoles?», eXtoikos, n.o 9, pp. 5 1-58, 2013.

1. ICT Integration in Ecuador’s Military Education: Go ing Beyond PowerPoint Francisco Garay 1 , Giovanna Morillo 2 , Teresa Guarda 2,3 1 Academia de Guerra Naval, Guayaquil, Ecuador 2 Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas-ESPE, Sangolqui, Quito, Ecuador 3 Algoritmi Centre, Minho University, Guimarães, Portu gal fgaray@armada.mil.ec, giovi.morillog@gmail.com, tguarda@gmail.com Abstract. The use of Information and Communication Technologi es, ICT, as a way to generate better learning experiences by incr easing student motivation in a constructivist framework, is one of the objective s to be reached by educational institutions in the current times, from which milit ary education does not take distance, something in which the use of Information and Communication Tech- nologies can help, being more than the use of simul ators or a slide presenter. In Ecuador, the level of ICT integration in education is not high, which is reflected in military education, for which a referential mode l is proposed. Keywords: Military Education, Information Technology and Comm unications, Technology Integration, Digital Competences, Construc tivism. 1 Introduction UNESCO [1] indicates that there are still people ar ound the world who maintain that the schooling model has no future in the digital ag e due to the existence of e-learning, mobile learning and other digital technologies. The importance of including computer technology in education is given by its ver- satility, its integrating nature and the possibilit ies it offers in the classroom. The di- dactic use of the new technologies makes them a did actic resource and / or a resource for the expression and communication, to facilitate the individualized attention to the student, the modification of the teacher's role and the access to a greater quantity of information [2]. The teacher who uses them appropri ately takes on the role of accom- panying the student in their learning, which has ne w capacities based on ICT to draw conclusions based on the available evidence [3]. The amount of information available these days, req uires a careful and effective planning of what will be shared with students, and then teachers become increasingly essential in this new role. New technologies facili tate access to information, and sometimes too much information, which is because te acher guidance is essential. Teachers must use ICT, along with several other aid s available for teaching, as in- struments of their students' learning, as elements that facilitate it, as the means and not as the end [1].

14. 14 29. F. Anders, «Gamer mode   : Identifying and managing unwanted behaviour in mi litary edu- cational wargaming», 2014. 30. M. Macedonia, «Games, Simulation, and the Military Education Dilemma», Forum Future High. Educ., 2002. 31. S. O’Brien, «Virtual Desktop Upgrade Increases Train ing Effectiveness», Navy Live, 2013. [En línea]. url: http://navylive.dodlive.mil/ 2013/02/04/virtual-desktop-upgrade- increases-training-effectiveness. 32. H. Bell y C. Reigeluth, «Paradigm change in military e ducation and training», Educ. Technol., vol. 54, n.o 3, jun. 2014. 33. S. Majumdar, J. Anderson, N. Wai-Kong, S. Barnhart, T. A. Koszalka, y Z. Zhi-ting, UNESCO Office in Bangkok: Regional Guidelines on Teac her Development for Peda- gogy-Technology Integration [Working Draft]. UNESCO, 2005. 34. ISTE, «ISTE Standards Teachers». 2008. 35. D. Barr y C. Sykora, «Learning, teaching and leading. A compartive look at the ITSE Standards for Teachers and UNESCO ICT Competency Frame work for Teachers.» ISTE, ene-2015. 36. UNESCO, UNESCO ICT competency framework for teachers. Version 2.0. UNESCO, 2011. 37. Ministerio de Educación, Cultura y Deporte de Españ a. Instituto Nacional de Tecnologías Educativas y de Formación del Profesorado, «Marco c omún de competencia digital docen- te V 2.0». 2013. 38. M. Beglau et al., «Technology, Coaching and Community: Power Partners for Improved Professional Development in Primary and Secondary E ducation». ISTE, 2011. 39. UNESCO Bangkok, ICT in teacher education. Case Studies from the Asia-Pacific region. UNESCO, 2008. 40. UNESCO Bangkok, UNESCO Office in Bangkok: Integrating I CT in education, lessons learned. UNESCO Asia and Pacific Regional Bureau for E ducation, 2004. 41. P. Sánchez-Antolín, F. J. Ramos, y J. Sánchez-Santam aría, «Formación Continua Y Com- petencia Digital Docente: El Caso De La Comunidad De Madrid (Policies for Continuous Training and the Digital Teaching Competence: The Cas e of Madrid)», Social Science Re- search Network, Rochester, NY, SSRN Scholarly Paper I D 2690387, jun. 2014. 42. M. A. Moreira et al., «Las políticas educativas TIC en España después del Programa Es- cuela 2.0: las tendencias que emergen / ICT educatio n policies in Spain after School Pro- gram 2.0: Emerging Trends», Rev. Latinoam. Tecnol. Educ. - RELATEC, vol. 13, n.o 2, pp. 11-33, dic. 2014. 43. M. Area Moreira, A. L. Sanabria Mesa, y A. M. Vega Navarro, «Las políticas educativas TIC (Escuela 2.0) en las Comunidades Autónomas de Es paña desde la visión del profeso- rado», Campus Virtuales, vol. 2, n.o 1, pp. 74-88, a go. 2015. 44. UNESCO, «Estándares de competencias en TIC para docen tes». 2008. 45. J. Pozuelo Echegaray, «¿Y si enseñamos de otra mane ra? Competencias digitales para el cambio metodológico», Caracciolos, vol. 2, n.o 1, ju n. 2014. 46. M. E. Añel Cabanelas y M. Raposo Rivas, «Los docentes de postgrado ante las nuevas tecnologías», Rev. Latinoam. Tecnol. Educ. - RELATEC, vol. 5, n.o 2, pp. 501-512, 2006. 47. OREALC / UNESCO Santiago, Formación docente y las tecn ologías de información y comunicación. Estudio de casos en Bolivia, Chile, Colo mbia, Chile, Ecuador, México, Pa- namá, Paraguay y Perú. Santiago, Chile: AMF imprenta , 2005. 48. S. I. Bernal Angel, G. E. Jaramillo Moreno, y I. E. Molina Cuartas, «Capacitación de Do- centes en Tecnologías de la Información y la Comunic ación», en Colombia aprende, Bo- gotá, Colombia, 2005.

13. 13 6. Fernández Batanero y J. A. Torres González, «Actitud es docentes y buenas prácticas con TIC del profesorado de Educación Permanente de Adult os en Andalucía», Teacher attitu- des and best practices with ICT faculty Adult Continu ing Education in Andalusia, 2015. 7. F. Á. Bravo Sánchez y A. Forero Guzmán, «La robótica como un recurso para facilitar el aprendizaje y desarrollo de competencias generales» , Educ. Knowl. Soc. EKS, vol. 13, n.o 2, pp. 120-136, jul. 2012. 8. J. Calero y O. Escardíbul, «Recursos escolares y resu ltados de la educación», Reflex. So- bre El Sist. Educ. Esp., p. 314, 2015. 9. A. L. Amores Veloz, «Impacto del uso y aplicación d e las TIC’s en el proceso de enseñan- za y aprendizaje de la Matemática de los estudiante s del primer semestre de la Carrera de Matemática y Física de la Facultad de Filosofía de la Universidad Central del Ecuador año lectivo 2010-2011 y propuesta de un software intera ctivo para mejorar la enseñanza y aprendizaje», Universidad Central del Ecuador, Quito , 2014. 10. M. E. Ortiz Rojas, «Constructivismo y Herramientas We b 2.0 en Educación Superior», Universidad Casagrande, Guayaquil, 2012. 11. M. Hi Fong Díaz, «El uso de las redes sociales en e l aprendizaje», Universidad Casagran- de, Guayaquil, 2015. 12. M. E. Rodríguez Córdova, «Incidencia de las tecnologí as de información y comunicación (TIC) en el proceso de enseñanza aprendizaje», Facul tad Latinoamericana de Ciencias So- ciales - Ecuador, Quito, 2010. 13. Ortiz Medina y C. Chiluiza García, «Factores y relaci ones que afectan la incorporación de tecnologías de información y comunicación en la edu cación superíor», ago. 2009. 14. Comando Conjunto de las Fuerzas Armadas, «Modelo Educ ativo de Fuerzas Armadas». 2012. 15. Reglamento a la Ley de Personal de Fuerzas Armadas. 2009. 16. Ley de Personal de Fuerzas Armadas. 1991. 17. Á. Méndez Cortes, «Una mirada crítica a la educación en el ejército», jun. 2013. 18. H. Annen, C. Nakkas, y J. Mäkinen, Thinking and Acti ng in Military Pedagogy. Frankfurt am Maim, Berlin, Bern, Bruxelles, New York, Oxford, Wi en: Peter Lang, 2013. 19. J. E. Driskell, D. W. Olsen, R. T. Hays, y B. Mullen, «Training Decision-Intensive Tasks: A Constructivist Approach.», nov. 1995. 20. J. Szabó, «Military pedagogy - Focusing on the four th generation warfare», Hadtudományi Szle., vol. 6, 2013. 21. J. Juhary, «Understanding Military Pedagogy», Proce dia - Soc. Behav. Sci., vol. 186, pp. 1255-1261, may 2015. 22. J. Johnson-Freese, «The Reform of Military Education : Twenty-Five Years Later», For- eign Policy Res. Inst., vol. 52, 2012. 23. C. L. Ordóñez, «Pensar pedagógicamente desde el cons tructivismo. De las concepciones a las prácticas pedagógicas», Rev. Estud. Soc., n.o 19 , pp. 7-12, dic. 2004. 24. C. L. Ordóñez, «Pensar pedagógicamente, de nuevo, de sde el constructivismo», Rev. Cienc. Salud, vol. 4, n.o 0, oct. 2010. 25. R. P. Romero Cruz, «Propuesta de formación en Docencia Universitaria para los profeso- res en la Escuela Superior de Policía - ESP», 2015. 26. J. J. Irigoyen, M. Y. Jiménez, y K. F. Acuña, «Compe tencias y educación superior», Rev. Mex. Investig. Educ., vol. 16, n.o 48, pp. 243-266, mar. 2011. 27. K. Catanzano, «Enhanced training for a 21st-century military». Booz Allen Hamilton, nov- 2011. 28. D. M. Ruth, R. Fricker, y T. M. Mastre, «A Study of M obile Learning Trends at the U.S. Naval Academy and the Naval Postgraduate School», e ne. 2013.


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